Category Archives: Diversity and Pluralism

‘Violence, threats and pressures against journalists and other media actors in the European Union’ 2016

The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) reports that free and pluralist media is vital to the democratic functioning of the European Union (EU) and its Member States. However, journalists and other media actors in the EU face various challenges, including violence, threats and other forms of pressure, both direct and indirect.

White Paper on European Governance

The Commission adopted the White Paper on European Governance in July 2001 with the aim of establishing more democratic forms of governance at all levels – global, European, national, regional and local. The White Paper forwards a set of proposals focusing on the role of the EU institutions, better involvement, better regulation, and the contribution the European Union can make to world governance.

Report on Public Service Media by European Audiovisual Observatory

A report on the public service media remit in 40 member countries has been issued by the European Audiovisual Observatory.
The comparative tables provided in the report include information on:
– the adopting bodies,
– the concerned broadcasters,
– the legal sources defining the remit, with mention of the specific articles,
– the links to the texts in their original language and an English translation where available.

Media (In)Dependence in Bulgaria: Risks and Trends

As a result of the economic crisis of 2009 and the rise in internet usage, print media in Bulgaria lost a significant portion of its traditional financing and became an easy target for external influence. At the beginning of the 2010s, oligarchic groups accumulated a ‘media empire’ (including print and online media, TV, printing and distribution facilities) that engaged in political engineering, utilizing media as a direct tool for state capture during the political crisis of 2013 – 2014.

For more details, read the related policy brief.

The Freedom of Information Act 2000

The Freedom of Information Act 2000 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that creates a public “right of access” to to government-held information. The intent is to allow private individuals and corporations reasonable access to information while minimizing the risk of harm to any entity. The concept was first put forward in 1997, was passed in 2000 and came into full effect in 2005. You can access the official document here.

Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU brings together in a single document the fundamental rights protected in the EU. The Charter contains rights and freedoms under six titles: Dignity, Freedoms, Equality, Solidarity, Citizens’ Rights, and Justice. Proclaimed in 2000, the Charter has become legally binding on the EU with the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, in December 2009.

You can access the document here.

Transfrontier Television

The European Convention on Transfrontier Television was opened for signing on 5 May 1989 by the Council of Europe’s Committee of Ministers. It came into force on 1 May 1993. The Protocol amending the Convention was adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 9 September 1998 and was opened for acceptance by the Parties to the present Convention on 1 October 1998. The Protocol takes effect when all the Parties to the current Convention have accepted it or, alternatively, two years after it has been opened for acceptance (i.e., 1 October 2000), unless a State which is a Party to the Convention has lodged an objection to this automatic entry into force. The revised European Convention on Transfrontier Television and its Explanatory Report can be accessed here.


Report on social participation and democratization of communications. Written by colleagues from Universidad Nacional de San Luis y de la Universidade do Vale do Rio do Sinos de Porto Alegre.

A Summary can be retrieved from here: